Sensors and Actuators B 34 (1996) 450-455

Microfabricated electrochemical analysis system
for heavy metal detection

Richard J. Reaya, Anthony F. Flannerya, Christopher W. Stormenta,
Samuel P. Kounavesb, Gregory T.A. Kovacsa

aDepartment of Electrical Engineering, CIS 130, M/C 4070, Stanford, CA 94305-4070, USA
bDepartment of Chemistry, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA


A low power, hand-held system has been developed for the measurement of heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions. The system consists of an electrode array sensor, a high performance single chip potentiostat and a microcontroller circuit. The sensor is a microfabricated array of iridium electrodes, onto which a thin film of mercury is electroplated. Quantitative heavy metal analysis is performed using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Measured results show a one part-per-billion sensitivity and multiple use capability.