Electroanalysis, 2000, 12, 677-84

Microfabricated Ultramicroelectrode Arrays:
Developments, Advances, and Applications in Environmental Analysis

R. Feeney and and Samuel P. Kounaves*
Department of Chemistry, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 U.S.A.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed (skounave(at)tufts.edu).


The wider availability of microlithographic techniques for the fabrication of electrochemical devices has led to a significant increase in the development of microfabricated arrays of microelectrodes and their use in a wide variety of analytical problems.  The major microfabrication steps and the capabilities and limitations of this microsensor technology are reviewed in this article.  Several examples are summarized to illustrate the breadth of work with silicon-based microelectrode arrays, with special emphasis on their use for environmental analysis in a range of diverse settings including remote electroanalysis on Mars.